Medveditsa River, Tver Region
If you want to make a quick trip from Moscow into the wilderness, the area around Medveditsa river in Tver region is perhaps the best choice. The place is located about 280 km north from Moscow and if you leave outside of peak hours you can make it in about 3.5 hours by car.
The area has beautiful mixed forests, lots of lingonberries and mushrooms, you can also do fishing there. There are many stops along the river shore suitable for wild camping, some of them already have basic structures and fire places. If you have an inflatable boat you can travel to the other side of the river (you can also walk there over a bridge, but that'll take about 40 minutes). The forests on the other side have amazing moss-covered ground and that's where you find the most berries and mushrooms, especially in end August and the beginning of September.
To get to the right spot you can drive to Nizhnyaya Troitsa village (see the location mark on the map below) and then explore the neighborhood around. You'll probably need an SUV — the road can get pretty washed out after the rains, so it's better to rent a car (it costs only about €30 per day and the petrol is cheap). The village is actually located on the both sides of the river, but the roads on the northern side are a bit better, so you might want to try that first and then drive to the other side.
If you decide to use the public transport, your best bet is to take a train from Lobnya station (1 hour by car from Sheremetyevo airport) or from Savyolovsky station (2.5 hours - €7) to Dubna (a small town in Moscow region) and to then get a taxi directly to Lgovo village (about 2 hours and 2000R / €30) and walk from there (about 5 km). Alternatively, you can take the fast Sapsan train to Tver (1 hour, €20-€30) from Leningradsky train station in Moscow and then take a taxi from Tver to Lgovo village (2 hours, 2000R / €30) and walk to the river.
Finally, there's a train from Moscow Belorussky station to Rybinsk (every second day at 21.08, €15), which arrives to Kashin (a town about half hour from the river) at about 4.30 am. If you travel in summer, you'll have a good night sleep on the train and then take a taxi to Lgovo village not far from the river (30 mins, about 700 R / €10). This is perhaps the easiest and the cheapest way with the public transport, but you have to plan your timings.
It's much easier to drive there by car, if you have your own or rent one (you'll need an SUV). Drive along Dmitrovskoe Shosse (A 104) through Yakhroma (a popular ski and snowboard resort), Dmitrov and Kimry for about 3.5 hours and you'll reach your destination.
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